‡ Photonic Systems Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-742 Seoul, Korea
Publication History Received26 May 2014Revised21 July 2014Published online25 July 2014Published inissue 13 August 2014
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Plasmonic nanoantennas are versatile tools for coherently controlling and directing light on the nanoscale. For these antennas, current fabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB) milling with Ga+-ions routinely achieve feature sizes in the 10 nm range. However, they suffer increasingly from inherent limitations when a precision of single nanometers down khổng lồ atomic length scales is required, where exciting quantum mechanical effects are expected lớn affect the nanoantenna optics. Here, we demonstrate that a combined approach of Ga+-FIB & milling-based He+-ion lithography (HIL) for the fabrication of nanoantennas offers to lớn readily overcome some of these limitations. Gold bowtie antennas with 6 nm gap kích cỡ were fabricated with single-nanometer accuracy và high reproducibility. Using third harmonic (TH) spectroscopy, we find a substantial enhancement of the nonlinear emission intensity of single HIL-antennas compared lớn those produced by state-of-the-art gallium-based milling. Moreover, HIL-antennas show a vastly improved polarization contrast. This superior nonlinear performance of HIL-derived plasmonic structures is an excellent testimonial khổng lồ the application of He+-ion beam milling for ultrahigh precision nanofabrication, which in turn can be viewed as a stepping stone to mastering quantum optical investigations in the near-field.
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